Category Archives: Scotland

Church History Index

This is the beginning of an index on articles pertaining to Church History. I am confident that it is not a complete list, but I trust that it will be helpful to those interested in this subject or in trying to locate photos for use in teaching. If you are looking for something about Roman Catholicism just search for Rome. There are many references to the Byzantine period and structures, etc. Search for various examples.

The Deesis from Hagia Sophia in Istanbul shows Jesus enthroned with Mary and John the Baptist on either side. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Some General Articles
The Councils of Nicea
The Reformation
The Restoration Movement
Significant Individuals
Miscellaneous Articles
The Proper MLA Way to Cite this page

“Church History Index.” Ferrell’s Travel Blog, 5 Oct. 2018,

The “heather on the hill” in Scotland

Balmoral is the Scottish home to the British Royal Family. At certain times of the year the rugged terrain of the region is ablaze with the famous “heather on the hill” that we learned about in Brigadoon. Our photo below was made near Balmoral in mid-September, 2007.

"Heather on the hill" near Balmoral, Scotland. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

“Heather on the hill” near Balmoral, Scotland. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Unique Hadrian exhibit at the Israel Museum

The Roman Emperor Hadrian (Publius Aelius Hadrianus) ruled the Empire from A.D. 117 to 138. Numerous statues of him are displayed in museums spread across the region. Most of them are made of stone, but there are three unique bronze statues of the Emperor. These are on display at the Israel Museum in Jerusalem until June. They come from the Israel Museum, the Louvre, and the British Museum.

Ilan Ben Zion says that Hadrian,

…was venerated by contemporary Roman historians as one of the Five Good Emperors: a just ruler, a peacemaker and great architect of the empire. The wall he famously constructed along the border with Scotland bears his name to this day. But in Jewish memory, Hadrian is best known as a brutal dictator who crushed the Bar Kochba revolt in 135, slaughtered hundreds of thousands of Jews, rebuilt Jerusalem as a pagan city, banned circumcision, and changed the name of Judaea to Palaestina. (The Times of Israel, Dec. 22, 2015)

I have seen all three of these pieces, but look forward to seeing them displayed together in the spring.

The most magnificent statue is the one of Hadrian discovered at Tel Shalem (Shalim) a few miles south of the Beth Shean (Beit She’an) in the Jordan Valley. Tel Shalem is thought to be the Salim mentioned in John 3:23.

Bronze statue of Hadrian discovered in a Roman army camp of the Sixth Roman Legion. He is portrayed as the supreme military commander. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Bronze statue of Hadrian discovered in a Roman army camp of the Sixth Roman Legion at Tel Shalem. He is portrayed as the supreme military commander. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Only the head remains of the other two statues. The first of these was acquired by the Louvre in 1984.

Bust of Hadrian thought to have come from Egypt. Louvre. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Bust of Hadrian thought to have come from Egypt. Louvre. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

The next bronze head comes from a larger than life-size statue that is thought to have stood in a public area of Roman London. It commemorates Hadrian’s visit to Britain in A.D. 122. It was found in the River Thames near London Bridge in 1834. This head is displayed in a room of Roman statues in the British Museum, but I have never known it to be open. I arranged to visit the room one time and have a photo but it is not as sharp as I prefer. This photo comes from Following Hadrian here. I refer you to that blog and Twitter feed for everything Hadrian.

Bronze Head of Hadrian. Following Hadrian.

Bronze head from a statue of the Emperor Hadrian, Romain Britain, British Museum
Carole Raddato CC BY-SA

Richard Batey writes about Hadrian’s relation to Jerusalem:

Hadrian visited Jerusalem in A.D. 129–130 and rebuilt the city on the plan of a Roman military camp. On the Temple Mount he erected a temple dedicated to Jupiter Capitolinus and nearby a second temple honoring the goddess Aphrodite. Hadrian renamed Jerusalem Aelia Capitolina, a designation that combined one of his names with Rome’s Capitoline triad: Jupiter, Juno and Minerva. Hadrian’s actions and policies provoked a second revolt by the Jews in A.D. 132. Led by Bar Kokhba, the Jewish troops succeeded in taking control of Jerusalem briefly but were soon (A.D. 135) crushed by the superior Roman army. After this decisive defeat it became a capital offense for a Jew to set foot in Jerusalem. (Batey, R. A. “Jerusalem.” Ed. Craig A. Evans and Stanley E. Porter. Dictionary of New Testament background: a compendium of contemporary biblical scholarship 2000 : 561. Print.)

Shmuel Browns, Israel Tour Guide, includes a beautiful photo of the Tel Shalem bust currently on display (outside the case?), and he presents another opinion about the rebuilding of the city. He also includes a list of some other things related to Hadrian that can be seen in and around Jerusalem. See his post here.

Information about the exhibit at the Israel Museum may be found here.

The watershed ridge

Those who study Bible geography learn about the extension of the Lebanon Mountains that runs south through Upper Galilee, Lower Galilee, the mountains of Samaria, and the mountains of Judea. Every mountain ridge has a right side and a left side. The ridge of the central mountain route in Israel provides the watershed to the east and the west.

St. Andrew’s (Scottish) Church sits on the watershed ridge in Jerusalem. When you travel from the west side of the old city of Jerusalem crossing the Hinnom Valley on the way south to Bethlehem and Hebron, you pass the watershed ridge and St. Andrew’s Church on your right. The Menachem Begin Heritage Center Museum and the Church sit up above the road and are lost to view as you watch the traffic.

This view, showing the east side of the watershed ridge, looks north to the Church.

The watershed ridge in Jerusalem. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

The watershed ridge in Jerusalem. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

St. Andrew’s Church has an interesting history which is described briefly.

St Andrew’s Church, Jerusalem, was built as a memorial to the Scottish soldiers who were killed fighting the Turkish Army during World War I, bringing to an end Ottoman rule over Palestine. It is a congregation of the Church of Scotland. (Wikipedia)

A cornerstone on the Church indicates that the stone was laid on May 7, 1927, by Field Marshal the Viscount Allenby in commemoration of the liberation of Jerusalem on December 9, 1917. We have a photo of the liberation here. Another plaque in the Church indicates that King Robert Bruce wished for his heart to be buried here.

Before his death Bruce required Sir James Douglas to carry his heart to Jerusalem, in redemption of his unfulfilled vow to visit the Holy City. Accordingly Sir James set out, bearing with him the embalmed heart. On his way he fell fighting the Moors in Spain. The heart was recovered and found its resting-place at Melrose, while the body rests at Dunfermline, Scotland. (Vilnay, Israel Guide 1978, 87)

The barren hill on which the Church is built is called Bible Hill.

Sign marking Bible Hill, the watershed ridge in Jerusalem. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Sign marking Bible Hill, the watershed ridge in Jerusalem. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

This hill marks a portion of the boundary of the biblical tribe of Judah. Notice the reference to “the top of the mountain.”

Then the boundary goes up by the Valley of the Son of Hinnom at the southern shoulder of the Jebusite (that is, Jerusalem). And the boundary goes up to the top of the mountain that lies over against the Valley of Hinnom, on the west, at the northern end of the Valley of Rephaim. (Joshua 15:8 ESV)

In another post we hope to show you more photos of the watershed ridge and the view on each side of it from this same location. Meanwhile, take a look at several photos of the Church, and a satellite view of the area at Bible Walks.

Thanks for following our tours

Thanks to your interest we noticed an increase in readers during our trip to Egypt. We appreciate your interest in the subjects we write about.

A blog is different from a web page. On a web page, such as the Biblical Studies Info Page, there are many categories and pages available. When you check the blog you see the last entry at the top of the page. You must click on the Archives listing, or use the Search Box to locate earlier posts.

A list of some other trips we have covered on this blog might be helpful to you (from the most recent to the earliest).

  • Egyptian Adventure (begin January 16, 2009).
  • Israel (personal study) trip (begin August 20, 2008).
  • Steps of Paul and John (Greece and Turkey) (May, 2008).
  • Bible Land Tour of Israel and Jordan (April, 2008).
  • Scotland Highlights (September 2007).
  • Biblical & Historical Sites in Turkey (May and June, 2007).

The purpose of these trips is educational. We seek to relate the history and the land to the biblical account.

Suez Canal near Ismailia. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Suez Canal near Ismailia. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

This view of the Suez Canal at Ismailia looks from the east to the west. The ancient Egyptians dug numerous canals in the general area. This modern canal was officially opened November 17, 1869.

We would like for you to continue to check the blog several times a week as we write about other matters of interest to Bible students.

Be sure to read…

I want to encourage you to go back to the post on “The historical credibility of the Gospel of John” and read the comment by my friend Bruce Hudson. Prof. F. F. Bruce was at the University of Manchester for many years. You might enjoy some comments I made about Prof. Bruce last Septermber when I was in Scotland. Click here.

Some favorite travel photos of 2007

In the olden days of 35mm I made about 300 to 400 photos on each trip. Now, with digital photography I make 3000 to 4000. Out of that number I find a few good ones that can be used in various presentations. Pardon me for sharing with you a few of my personal favorites of our foreign tours in 2007.

This photo was made in Tarsus of Cilicia (now in Turkey). This was the hometown of Saul, later the Apostle Paul. Elizabeth and I stopped to smell the roses. I think few of us really take enough time to do that. I don’t remember who made the photo. Maybe Larry or Olen. Leave a comment if you remember.

Ferrell and Elizabeth at Tarsus in Cilicia

One of the highlights of the Ancient Crossroads Tour of Historical and Biblical Sites in Turkey was locating the ancient Roman Road north of Tarsus. I had known of this road for a long time but had been unable to get to it. What a thrill!

Ferrell Jenkins on the Roman Road North of Tarsus.

David Padfield made this photo. David is a great photographer and knowledgeable in photographic equipment and techniques. He also made the photo below. In fact, he has a little story behind it. This was made at Arsameia in the mountains of Eastern Turkey. This was the capital of the Kingdom of Commagene in the first century B.C. Elizabeth made David, Gene, and Leon promise that they would not let me fall off a cliff. David sent her an enlargement of this photo with a note that this was as close as he could get to me.

Ferrell Jenkins at Arsameia. Photo by David Padfield.

On our September trip to Scotland I enjoyed going to the Isle of Iona, site of a medieval monastery. It was an always misty, and often rainy, experience. I am not sure, but think Jim made this photo.

Ferrell and Elizabeth on the Isle of Iona in Scotland.

Those who traveled with us must have their own favorites. Send a comment to tell us about it.

We have been greatly blessed to travel to so many places on earth over the past 40 years, and to be able to share them with others. Thanks for the memories!

Looking for Turkey or Scotland tour blogs?

If you are looking for the blogs and photos of our Ancient Crossroads tour of Biblical and Historical Turkey you need to click on the archive for May to begin the the journey. The tour continues in June.

The Best of Scotland tour blogs will be found in the September Archive.

Return to the “New World”

This morning we will be leaving for the Edinburgh Airport to take our flight back to the United States. We have had a good group, and the tour has been enjoyable.

This is the 71st tour we have conducted, and that fairly well corresponds to my age. Most of our tours have been to the Bible Lands, but we always enjoy these more leisurely tours, too.

Thanks to each of you who have written a short note regarding the blog. It has been a pleasure to work on these pictures each evening.

Our last full day in Edinburgh was a free one for tour members to visit whatever they wanted to. Everyone seemed to enjoy that. The weather was great, and was able to make some photos of Edinburgh Castle with the sun shining on it. So, I will share this last photo before departure with you. Please pray for our safety.

Edinburgh Castle. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

The Reformation and Restoration in Scotland

For those with an interest in Church History, Scotland provides many links. Scotland was influenced by the work of both Martin Luther and John Calvin, who were already advancing the Reformation principles in the early part of the 1500s. Sixteenth century Scottish leaders, who began their work a few years later, included George Wishart and John Knox.

Those of us with a background in the Restoration Movement in America find ourselves in agreement with many of the principles of the Reformation, but not with all of them. Thomas and Alexander Campbell came to America from Northern Ireland. In that area the people “were predominantly Anglo-Scottish in blood and Protestant in religion” (West). Thomas Campbell came to America in 1807. In 1808, when Alexander set out for America he was shipwrecked on the rugged shores of Scotland. Alexander entered Glasgow University where his father has studied earlier. He studied Greek, Logic, and Experimental Philosophy. He came in contact with several independent movements and was especially influenced by James and Robert Haldane. John Glas and Robert Sandeman influenced the young Campbell also. Their churches were congregational in government with a plurality of elders and deacons. They rejected human creeds, advocated weekly observance of the Lord’s Supper. See West, The Search for the Ancient Order, I:36-52.

In America, Barton W. Stone and the Campbells rejected the Calvinistic doctrines of inherited depravity, the direct operation of the Holy Spirit, etc. They determined that the New Testament was the standard of authority for Christians, and that baptism for forgiveness of sins is immersion. Infants did not need to be baptized because they are not sinners.

Writings of some of the Restoration leaders are available online at the Restoration Movement Page.

King James VI (James Stuart) of Scotland was King of Scots, King of England, and King of Ireland. He “authorized” the translation of the Bible that we still know as the King James Bible (1611). King James was born in Edinburgh Castle. The finished product was largely the work of William Tyndale whose New Testament was printed in 1525. His work on the Old Testament was completed by Miles Coverdale and the entire English Bible was first printed in 1535. Tyndale was strangled and burned at the stake in 1536. A nice time line on the Reformation can be studied at the Friends of Tyndale page.

Prior to the work of Tyndale in Scotland, Martin Luther was pushing the Reformation in Germany. Zwingli was at work in eastern Switzerland., and John Calvin was working with Theodore Beze in Geneva, Switzerland.

This beautiful and sunny morning I visited the John Knox house in Edinburgh. It is a house dating to the time of Knox and has been sparsely furnished in period furniture. It serves as a museum of the work of Knox. There are several printed volumes (including the Geneva Bible) of the time on display. The Knox house is located on the Royal Mile.

John Knox House, Edinburgh, Scotland.

This modern scribe, sitting at a table in the Knox house, is thinking about correcting some of the Calvinistic ideas advanced by Knox.

Modern Scribe in the John Knox House in Edinburgh.

I believe these men failed in some regards, but I am grateful for the work they did to bring us this far. To paraphrase the words of Bernard of Clairvaux, “If we can see further it is because we are standing on the shoulders of giants.”

“Let us therefore, as many as are perfect, have this attitude; and if in anything you have a different attitude, God will reveal that also to you; however, let us keep living by that same standard to which we have attained. Brethren, join in following my example, and observe those who walk according to the pattern you have in us.” – The Apostle Paul, Philippians 3:15-17.