All four of the Gospels make some reference to the imprisonment of John the Baptist (Matthew 14:3,10; Mark 6:17; Luke 3:20; John 3:24). This must have been a significant and traumatic event for both the disciples of John and the disciples of Jesus.
Mark, the shortest gospel, gives the most complete account of why Herod Antipas arrested and executed John. See Mark 6:17-32.
Josephus, the late first century Jewish historian, includes a long section about John in Antiquities 18:116-119. Perhaps another time we will take a closer look at all of it. For now, I am concerned with the place of execution.
Accordingly he was sent as prisoner, out of Herod’s suspicious temper, to Machaerus [or spell it Macherus], the citadel I before mentioned, and was there put to death. Now the Jews had an opinion that the destruction of this army was sent as a punishment upon Herod, and a mark of God’s displeasure to him. (Antiquities 18:119)
Josephus also records that Herod’s wife, the daughter of Aretas IV, king of Petra (the Nabateans), learned of his plan to divorce her and marry Herodias. Without telling Antipas that she knew, she asked for permission to be sent to Machaerus.I suspect that Herod was glad to get her out of town. She was no dummy. She had made arrangements for her father’s army to bring her safely [from Machaerus] to Arabia [perhaps Petra]. This event led to a war between the armies of Aretas and Herod Antipas. Herod’s army was destroyed. See Antiquities 18:109-115 for the full story.
Here is a brief summary about Machaerus.
- Built by Alexander Jannaeus (102-75 B.C.).
- Rebuilt by Herod the Great. This fortress is the eastern parallel to Masada.
- Assigned to Herod Antipas at the death of Herod the Great (4 B.C.).
- Destroyed by the Romans (A.D. 57).
- Occupied by Jewish rebels (A.D. 66).
- Captured by the Romans (A.D. 71).
Machaerus has an impressive location overlooking the Dead Sea from the east. There was so much haze (eastern sand) in the air the day we visited last April that it was not possible to see the Dead Sea below. This photo gives some idea of the terrain. The citadel is located about 2300 feet above sea level. This would make it about 3600 feet above the Dead Sea. The hill to the east, where I stood, is about 60 feet higher than the citadel.
Here is a view of some of the reconstructed ruins at the top.
Where was John buried? Mark tells us that his disciples “came and took away his body and laid it in a tomb” (6:29). Did they bury him at Machaerus? At Samaria? Neither the Bible nor Josephus inform us.
If you could use some nice photos of Machaerus to illustrate Bible lessons, I suggest you check out those by David Padfield here.