Monthly Archives: December 2018

Ferrell’s Favorite Fotos #2

Hasankef in southeastern Turkey is an old town to be flooded by the Tigris River. Hasankef is located about 37 km. [23 miles] south of Batman, Turkey, and about 300 km. [187 miles] north of Mosul, Iraq, site of ancient Nineveh. National Geographic, Nov. 2018, describes what is happening here in an article entitled “Flooding History.”

The northern portion of the two photos. The citizens can be relocated, but the history will be flooded. FerrellJenkins.blog.

The northern portion of the two photos. The citizens of Hasankef, Turkey, can be relocated, but the history will be flooded. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

It takes two photos to make this a favorite.

The Tigris River at Hasankef, Turkey. FerrellJenkins.blog.

The southern portion of Hasankef, Turkey. This town will be flooded by the Tigris River as a result of the building of dams on the river. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

The Tigris River is mention only twice in the Bible.

  • Named as the third river flowing out of Eden (Genesis 2:14). Raises interesting questions about the location of Eden.
  • Associated with a vision seen by Daniel further south in ancient Babylon (Daniel 10:4).

Ferrell’s Favorite Fotos #1

Those who have followed this blog for even the past couple of years have probably noticed fewer posts. I randomly choose November as an illustration. In 2013 there were 12 posts. In 2016 there were 6. In 2017 there were 4. In 2018 there were 2. The drop is because of family responsibilities that take my time and make it difficult for me to devote as much time to the blog as I would like.

Rather than give up I have decided to try something new. For a short time at least I propose to post some of my favorite photos with little more than a caption to identify them and perhaps show how they relate to a biblical text or event.

These photos will not be numbered from my most favorite to my least favorite of the group. The numbers are to keep them from all having the same title.

What makes these photos “my favorites”? It could be because they are rare, meaning that few photographers have been able to visit the site to make a photo. It might be because of their beauty. Perhaps I just like the photo. Maybe it was difficult to get the shot. In the beginning I will try to make selections from various countries within the Bible World.

Some of these photos may have been used in a post in the past and others will be published here for the first time.

This does not mean that I am giving up the longer, better researched posts. Already there are fewer of them.

Let’s start.

The site of ancient Babylon. ferrelljenkins.blog

My first view is of the site of the ancient Neo-Babylonian city of Babylon. Iraq, May 12, 1970. Scanned slide. This was the site of the events of the early chapters of the book of Daniel. King Nebuchadnezzar ruled here from 605-562 B.C. Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah of the tribe of Judah, remained faithful to the LORD here, even enduring persecution.

Visit our Index of articles about Babylon here.

New Resource on Persia from BiblePlaces.com

Persia is the only major country in the Bible Lands that I have not been able to visit. I was delighted when I learned that Todd Bolen, of BiblePlaces.com, had made such a trip.

In his usual thorough way, Bolen has included all the sites one might need in teaching about Esther, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, Cyrus, Darius, Xerxes, Artaxerxes, the return from Exile, and more!

There are 1600 high-resolution images of historical sites and scenery in modern Iran.

BiblePlaces.com

Persia – Volume 19 – in the Pictorial Library of Bible Lands.

BiblePlaces.com is offering this Volume 19 of the Pictorial Library of Bible Lands for the introductory price of $25.00. You will have immediate download and also receive the DVD. In addition to ordering a copy for yourself, this is a wonderful gift to consider for some minister or Bible teacher. Even if they already have the Pictorial Library of Bible Lands, this is a new volume.

Time is running out on this introductory price of $25.00. Go here for secure ordering info.

I suggest you subscribe to the BiblePlaces Newsletter. Here is a link to the most recent issue which also includes more of the Persia photos. At the bottom of the page you will learn how to subscribe.

Ring or no ring, Jesus stood before Pontius Pilate

By this time many people have heard the report on the news or read one of the numerous   articles stating that a ring possibly belonging to Pontius Pilate, the Roman prefect or procurator who condemned Jesus to be crucified, has been found.

The scholarly article on which the reports have been based has been published in Israel Exploration Journal 68:2 (2018). The popular article in The Times of Israel (here) includes a black and white photo of the area in the Herodium where the ring was found. I searched my photos and discovered a color picture I made of the same area in 2011. Even then some reconstructive work was underway.

Photo of the Herodium made from the garden where the ring was discovered. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Photo of the Herodium made from the garden where the ring was discovered. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins in 2011.

Our aerial photo below shows the Herodium in December, 2009. Additional excavations continue to be made on the north side of the artificial mound. The ancient fortress was hidden in the “cone” of the mound.

This aerial photo of the Herodium was made in 2009. The ring was found in the garden inside the fortress built by Herod the Great. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

This aerial photo of the Herodium was made in 2009. The ring was found in the garden inside the fortress built by Herod the Great. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

This ring was found by Hebrew University professor Gideon Foerster during an excavation at the Herodium in 1968-9. Only now have scholars at Hebrew University been able to use modern photographic technology to read the inscription on the ring. The thin ring made of copper-alloy shows a krater with a Greek inscription around it. It reminds one of an ancient coin set in a ring. The krater was often used for mixing wine.

Views and cross section of the ring discovered at Herodium. Drawing: J. Rodman; photo: C. Amit, IAA Photographic Department.

Views and cross section of the ring discovered at Herodium. Drawing: J. Rodman; photo: C. Amit, IAA Photographic Department.

I am not trained in things of this sort, but I immediately wondered about the spelling of the name Pilate. On the ring the Greek inscription is written as PILATO. I wondered why.

Now comes the Bible History Daily written by Robert Cargill, editor of Biblical Archaeology Review.

The ring discovered at Herodium is inscribed in Greek. And while Pilate minted several coins in Greek, he never placed his name on his coins, opting yet again to honor his benefactor, Tiberius, with the Greek inscription ΤΙΒΕΡΙΟΥ ΚΑΙϹΑΡΟϹ (Tiberiou Kaisaros; “of Tiberius Caesar”). Here, Pilate inscribes Tiberius’s name using the Greek genitive, or possessive case, to indicate that the coin was minted during the rule and under the authority of the emperor Tiberius.

Cargill wonders “why” Pilate would inscribe a ring with the name ΠΙΛΑΤΟ (PILATO) in Greek letters. He cites some reasonable info. He suggests one solution offered by Cate Bonesho, Assistant Professor of Hebrew Bible at UCLA. She says,

…ΠΙΛΑΤΟ may be a Greek transliteration of the Latin dative form of the name Pilatus.

You should be able to access Cargill’s article here. Prior to seeing his article I had already prepared a photo of the Pilate inscription discovered at Caesarea Maritima in 1961.

Pilate inscription discovered at Caesarea in 1961. Photo of the original in the Israel Museum. FerrellJenkins.blog.

Pilate inscription discovered at Caesarea in 1961. Photo of the original in the Israel Museum. FerrellJenkins.blog.

More than seven years ago I wrote about the discovery of this stone and the meaning of the inscription here and here.

I like the suggestion made by editor Cargill, and his mention of sources of information we already have.

…the Pilate Stone, hundreds of coins, Josephus, and the Bible itself—there really was a Roman governor in Judea at the time of Jesus named Pilate.

To his list we should add Tacitus and other ancient sources. The most lengthy biblical account is in John 18:29–19:38, but Matthew, Mark, Luke, and Paul also make reference to the event.

Be careful about jumping to conclusions after hearing or reading a brief report about discoveries like this. We have waited this long and we can wait a little longer while those trained in various fields evaluate the evidence.

Trephination was not that uncommon

Archaeologists working at Tel Megiddo excavated skeletons of two brothers from the Canaanite (Late Bronze) period dating to about 3,500 years ago,  who had a “complex medical procedure” known as trephination (or trephanation). An article in Haaretz includes several nice photos in the Premium Magazine here.

A few years ago Leon Mauldin and I traveled to some of the cities along the Turkish Black Sea Coast that may have been associated with the delivery of Peter’s epistles. See the  index of my articles here. In Samsun we visited the small archaeological museum and noted some skulls from Ikiztepe that had undergone the medical practice of trephination.

Ancient brain surgery that cut a hole in the skull to relieve pressure is referred to as trepination. A few of the skulls found at Ikiztepe are displayed in the museum. They are said to belong to Bronze Age III. I think that would be in the neighborhood of 1600 B.C. Here are two of the photos I made that show the hole drilled in the skull.

Example of Tripanation, Bronze Age III, Ikiztepe. Samsun Archaeological Museum. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Example of Trepination, Bronze Age III, Ikiztepe. Samsun Archaeological Museum. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

The surgery in the case below required a much larger hole.

Example of Trephenation, Bronze Age III, Ikiztepe. Samsun Archaeological Museum. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Example of Trephenation, Bronze Age III, Ikiztepe. Samsun Archaeological Museum. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

There is no indication whether the surgery was successful, or what happened to the surgeon if it failed.

Joe Zias, in an article in Mikhmanim (Spring 1999), says there have been 29 skulls showing trepanation (trephination) discovered in Israel. He says the survival rate based on “inflammatory or bone remodeling” indicate a 77 percent survival rate in these cases. The earlier link I had to this article is broken. I am currently unable to locate a link to this article which also deals with other medical issues in ancient Israel. One of the better known examples comes from Jericho.

Before any surgery involving the skull you should ask your surgeon about his or her grade in trepanation.