Monthly Archives: March 2012

Monday Meandering — March 19

Greatest Finds. The Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs has compiled a list of the “Greatest archeological finds in Israel” here with links. Places include Masada, Megiddo, Beit Guvrin-Maresha, Ashkelon, the City of David, Hazor, Dan, Herodion, Khirbet Qeiyafa, and Tel es-Safi (Gath), and others.

The Scale of the Universe 2 here. Fascinating. Requires Flash. Reminds me of two Biblical references.

 When I look at your heavens, the work of your fingers, the moon and the stars, which you have set in place,  4 what is man that you are mindful of him, and the son of man that you care for him? (Psalm 8:3-4 ESV)

For by him all things were created, in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or authorities– all things were created through him and for him.  And he is before all things, and in him all things hold together.  (Colossians 1:16-17 ESV)

Marine Life in the Corinthian Gulf here. Beautiful photos.

The Acrocorinth. Wonderful, clear view of the mountain above ancient Corinth here. Carl Rasmussen has posted several other nice photos of Corinth recently.

A history of the Roman Empire in 75 seconds here.

The Burnt House. The headline in the Jerusalem Post read “House in Old City as Titus left it.” Leen Ritmeyer includes this and another news article, along with his reconstruction of the Burnt House here.

Geopolitics of Israel. Every student of Bible geography will enjoy the analysis of the geopolitics of Israel by the Stratfor Global Intelligence here.

2,000-year-old Israeli date palm. Has it been trumped by a 32,000-year-old Russian flower? Tom Powers provides some links about the palm which is now about 8 feet tall, here.

HT: Aren Maeir; NT Resources Blog; Corinthian Matters; Luke Chandler’s Blog; Bible Places Blog.

A touch of Ireland

For today I wanted to share a little something from the Emerald Isle. The first photo was made at the Cliffs of Moher on the western coast of Ireland in County Clare.  It certainly illustrates why Ireland is referred to as the Emerald island. The tower is known as O’Briens Tower.

A nice web site about the Cliffs of Moher may be viewed here.

At the Cliffs of Moher, western coast of Ireland. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

The next photo comes from Wicklow County in the south eastern corner of Ireland. Glendalough served as a Christian monastic center for about 500 years from the sixth century A.D.

One of the educational exhibits at Glendalough involves the work of the scribe in copying the Scriptures and writing ecclesiastical works.

Scribe Exhibit at Glendalough, Ireland. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Scribe Exhibit at Glendalough, Wicklow County, Ireland. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Click on Monastic Chapters from a web site about Glendalough and Wicklow County here.

“Beware the ides of March”

Bust of Julius Caesar in Vatican Museum. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Bust of Julius Caesar in the Vatican Museum. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Shakespeare has the Sootsayer warn Caesar, “Beware the ides of March.” The ides of March was used to describe the 15th of March in the Roman calendar. It was on that day that Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 B.C. As a result, the expression has come to have a sense of foreboding — a sense that something bad is about to happen.

Our photo below shows the place in the Roman Forum where a temple was built to honor Julius Caesar by Augustus in 29 B.C. The deification of rulers was already common in the eastern part of the Empire. This practice would become a serious problem for the Christians of the Roman Empire before the end of the first century A.D., especially those living in Asia Minor. This is one of the issues addressed in the Book of Revelation.

Ruins of the temple erected to Caesar in the Roman Forum. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Ruins of the Temple erected to Caesar in the Roman Forum. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

The James Ossuary verdict. Does it matter?

Shortly after the SBL meeting in Toronto (November, 2002), I presented a lecture on the subject and posted similar material on Bible World here. The material I have posted in the past two days, and this one, has been posted at Bible World since December 18, 2002. Only minor changes have been made to correct tenses, mention dead links, etc.

Below are the questions I asked in my study, and the conclusions I drew, in 2002. This was when the issue was still a matter of scholarly discussion. No criminal forgery charges had been made at the time.

— • —

Several important questions should be asked about this ossuary. These questions will help us draw some conclusions.

Did the ossuary originate in first century Jerusalem? The evidence indicates that it did. The Geologic Survey of Israel has certified that the limestone is typical of that quarried in Jerusalem during the first and second centuries A.D. The patina in the inscription contains no modern elements, and there is no indication of the use of a modern tool on the ossuary. André Lemairé thinks this type of ossuary can be dated between 20 B.C. and A.D. 70.

James Ossuary at the Royal Ontario Museum - Nov. 22, 2002.

James Ossuary at the Royal Ontario Museum -2002. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Is the inscription authentic? The shape of certain of the letters indicates that the Aramaic inscription belongs to the last decades before the destruction of Jerusalem in A.D. 70. This is the exact period, according to Josephus, when James was killed. Some scholars have suggested that the inscription may have been written by two different hands. Lemairé sees no reason to draw this conclusion. After the panel discussion [at the SBL meeting in Toronto] the ossuary was examined by Frank Moore Cross and Joseph Fitzmeyer, both experts in the Aramaic of this period. According to Oded Golan, in an interview with the Discovery Channel  [the link is no longer active], they believe the inscription was written by one hand.

Is this the James of Galatians 1:19 and Acts 15? Is the James mentioned on the ossuary the James of the New Testament (Acts 15; Gal. 1:19)? In first century Jerusalem many people bore the names James, Joseph, and Jesus. When we consider the combination of relationships (son of, brother of), the number of possibilities goes down dramatically. The exact size of the population is uncertain. Lemairé estimated a maximum population of 80,000. Based on ossuary inscriptions of the period, Lemairé first suggested that about 20 people could be called “James son of Joseph brother of Jesus.” Golan says that Professor Camil Fuchs, head of Tel Aviv University’s Department of Statistics and Operations Research in the School of Mathematical Sciences, estimates on the basis of a highly complex statistical analysis that “only one person could be ‘James son of Joseph brother of Jesus,’ and that is the man who was known as James the Just, a leader in the early church and the brother of Jesus Christ” (Paddey, Patricia L. “Ossuary’s Owner Reveals New Research.” (23 Nov. 2002; this link is no longer active). I think the combination of relationships makes it highly probable that this is the ossuary of the James of Acts 15, but we may never know for certain.

Does it matter? If the inscription is authentic, it is another of the many archaeological confirmations of Biblical characters. We already know of Caiaphas, Pilate, Erastus, et al. It is another example of the historicity of the New Testament. It provides the earliest inscriptional evidence of Jesus. If the inscription is not authentic then it is just an ordinary limestone bone box, but one that has caused multitudes to discuss Jesus and the New Testament. Let us use it as an opportunity to discuss Jesus with those who do not know Him.

Please keep in mind that the New Testament documents, all of which date to the first century, provide the evidence that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God (John 20:31).

Now Jesus did many other signs in the presence of the disciples, which are not written in this book; but these are written so that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that by believing you may have life in his name. (John 20:30-31 ESV)

The Current Situation (2012). Today, and in the months to come, the reaction to this court decision will likely be along this line. Those who “knew” that the ossuary inscription was a fake, still think it is a fake. Those who thought the full inscription is genuine, still think it is genuine. Those who did not know whether the inscription was genuine or a fake still do not know. That is where I stand.

Additional Links of Interest.

Herschel Shanks, Bible History Daily, here.

Eric Meyers’ reaction on the ASOR Blog here.

Christopher Rollston, here.

James Ossuary — no proof of forgery

The word is out. In a 475-page verdict, Judge Aharon Farkash says the prosecutor failed to prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the James Ossuary and the Jehoash Inscription were forgeries.

Robert Deutsch was acquited of all charges. Oded Golan was acquited of charges that he forged a portion of the inscription on the James Ossuary.

Here are some links you can follow to “read all about it.”

Matthew Kalman’s report here. Kalman has followed this case through four years of testimony.

Todd Bolen’s comments at the Bible Places Blog here.

Response of the Israel Antiquities Authority here.

Haaretz: “After a decade, Israel court acquits collector of forging Jesus’ brother’s tomb” here.

The Times of Israel: “After 7-year saga, a surprising end to antiquities fraud case” here.

Later I plan to follow up on this with the question, “Does it matter?”

HT: Joseph Lauer

The James Ossuary Exhibition in Toronto

Biblical Archaeology Review cover above the James Ossuary.The existence of an ossuary bearing an Aramaic inscription, “Ya’akov bar Yosef akhui diYeshua” [James the son of Joseph the brother of Jesus] was announced at a press conference conducted by Hershel Shanks, editor of Biblical Archaeology Review, October 21, 2002. In the feature article of the November-December issue of Biblical Archaeology Review, Professor Andre Lemairé gives details about the ossuary and its inscription. An ossuary was used to house the bones of the deceased after the decay of the body. An ossuary need be only as large as the longest bones. The ossuary under consideration is about 20 inches long, 12 inches high, and 10 inches wide. They were commonly used by the Jews for secondary burial in the first century A.D.

The James Ossuary was placed on display at the Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto, Canada, from November 15th through December 29, 2002. It was displayed in a third floor room by itself in a well-lighted case. The walls of the room were filled with information about James, ossuaries, Jewish burial customs, and the James ossuary. The ossuary was cracked in transit from Israel to Canada but was been restored by the museum staff. The ROM has a good selection of material from the ancient Mediterranean world. The exhibition of the James Ossuary was arranged to coincide with the annual meetings of the American Schools of Oriental Research, the American Academy of Religion, and the Society of Biblical Literature. About eight thousand professors of religion and Biblical studies from around the world attend these meetings.

“No Ordinary Box of Bones”

The Society of Biblical Literature (SBL) planned a special session under the title “No Ordinary Box of Bones” for a learned discussion about the ossuary. The panel included the following scholars:

André Lemairé, the epigrapher from the Sorbonne who recently published the ossuary inscription in the Biblical Archaeology Review.

John Painter, author of a book on James, from Charles Stuart University in Australia.

Steve Mason, a Josephus scholar, from York University, Toronto. He put the quotation about James in Josephus in its proper context.

Eric Meyers, an archaeologist and scholar of Judaism at Duke University.

Hershel Shanks, editor of Biblical Archaeology Review.

Adele Reinhartz, of Wilfred Laurier University, served as chair of the panel.

Lemairé summarized the material from his BAR article. He responded to some recent charges that the second half of the inscription [brother of Jesus] is different from the first part [James the son of Joseph]. Evidence from paleography places the Aramaic inscription near the middle of the first century AD, prior to AD 70.

Eric Myers, a former president of ASOR, stated that he had concern about the existence of such a panel in light of the fact that the ossuary was “looted” and sold on the illegal antiquities market. He said the owner had been questioned by the police in Israel about the ossuary.

Herschel Shanks at SBL in Toronto, 2002.

Herschel Shanks in Toronto, 2002.

Herschel Shanks took exception to several statements made by Myers. Shanks publishes artifact which belong to private collectors. Both Shanks and Lemairé emphasized that the Dead Sea Scrolls fall into the same category. Shanks said there are good collectors and bad collectors. Good collectors allow their material to be published and share it with the world. Bad collectors keep their artifacts in their basements for personal enjoyment.

Mason put the quotation about James from Josephus in proper historical context. Josephus was dealing with the character of High Priests and mentioned, incidentally, that one of the people put to death was the brother of Jesus, the so-called Christ.

The quotation from Josephus, perhaps written in the last decade of the first century A.D., reads this way:

…when, therefore, Ananus was of this disposition, he thought he had now a proper opportunity [to exercise his authority]. Festus was now dead, and Albinus was but upon the road; so he assembled the Sanhedrin of judges, and brought before them the brother of Jesus, who was called Christ, whose name was James, and some others, [or some of his companions]; and, when he had formed an accusation against them as breakers of the law, he delivered them to be stoned: (Ant 20:200)

Painter mentioned the tradition that the throne of James (as Bishop of Jerusalem) and his burial in the Church of Saint James, an Armenian church in Jerusalem. He also cited other traditions about the death and burial of James from Clement of Alexandria, Hegesippus, and Eusebius.

A portion of the quotation from Eusebius, from the early 4th century A.D., reads,

These things are related at length by Hegesippus, who is in agreement with Clement. James was so admirable a man and so celebrated among all for his justice, that the more sensible even of the Jews were of the opinion that this was the cause of the siege of Jerusalem, which happened to them immediately after his martyrdom for no other reason than their daring act against him.

Josephus, at least, has not hesitated to testify this in his writings, where he says, “These things happened to the Jews to avenge James the Just, who was a brother of Jesus, that is called the Christ. For the Jews slew him, although he was a most just man.” (Ecclesiastical History 2 23:19-20)

Entrance to St. James Cathedral in the Armenian Quarter of Jerusalem. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Entrance to St. James Cathedral in the Armenian Quarter in the Old City of Jerusalem. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

When the panelists finished their presentations, time was allowed for only two or three questions from the audience of about 800 persons. I was seated directly in front of the podium about 4 or 5 rows from the front and rose to ask the first question. The owner of the ossuary, Mr. Oded Golan, was present for the session. I stated that we would like to hear him say how long the ossuary had been in his possession and whether the inscription was on it when he obtained it. Mr. Golan went to the platform and stated that he obtained the ossuary in the 1970s and that the inscription was on it when he obtained it. He is 51 years of age, and has been collecting ossuaries and other antiquities since he was 8 years old. He stated that one item from his collection had been published by the late Yigael Yadin.

Oden Golan and Ferrell Jenkins at SBL, Toronoto, 2002.

Oden Golan and Ferrell Jenkins at SBL, Toronoto, 2002.

It may sound strange to Americans that a young boy would be collecting ossuaries and other antiquities. We must remember that ancient artifacts are everywhere in Israel (and the West Bank) and that archaeology is a sort of past-time for many people who live there. As a boy growing up in north Alabama I picked up Indian arrowheads from the cotton fields. I have visited several homes in which the host would bring out numerous boxes of artifacts that they had collected from Indian mounds.

Well, I trust this will give our readers a little perspective on the initial presentation of the James Ossuary. You may read more about the trial which has been going on since December, 2004, here.

James the Lord’s Brother

In anticipation of the “James Ossuary” verdict which is scheduled to be announced March 14, I decided to provide some background material. First, here is a brief discussion of the identity of James, and his relation to Jesus.

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The name James was a common name in New Testament times. Several people bearing that name are mentioned in the New Testament. Two apostles bore that name: James the son of Zebedee (Matthew 4:21; 10:2), and James the son of Alphaeus (Matthew 10:3). James, the son of Zebedee, and brother of the apostle John, was put to death by Herod Agrippa I before A.D. 44 (Acts 12:1-2). There was also James, the brother of Jesus. Paul refers to him, along with Cephas [Peter] and John as men who were reputed to be pillars among the brethren (Galatians 2:9). Paul identifies James as “the Lord’s brother” in Galatians 1:19.

The New Testament mentions the brothers and sisters of Jesus in Mark 6:3 and Matthew 13:55-56. Roman Catholics make every effort to evade the plain meaning of “brother.” Roman Catholics hold the non-biblical doctrine of the perpetual virginity of Mary. They claim that the brothers of Jesus were really half-brothers or cousins. The inscription on the James ossuary has opened this issue anew, but more about that at another time (see Matthew 1:25). The New Testament indicates that James and the others listed were the uterine brothers of Jesus. James, the Lord’s brother, is generally thought to be the author of the Epistle of James. Jude, another brother of Jesus, wrote a short book in which he says that he is “a bond-servant of Jesus Christ, and brother of James.” This last expression indicates that Jude was not as well known as James.

The brothers of Jesus did not believe in him during His public ministry (John 7:5), but after the resurrection they are mentioned among the disciples (Acts 1:14). Paul informs us that Jesus made an appearance to James (1 Corinthians 15:7). At least some of the brothers of Jesus seem to be preachers of the gospel (1 Corinthians 9:5). It appears that the brothers of Jesus were convinced by the resurrection. James proved to be influential among the brethren both in Jerusalem and in other places (Galatians 2:11-13; Acts 15; 21:17-26). We’ll leave this matter for another time.

Josephus, the Jewish historian, makes a reference to “the brother of Jesus, who was called Christ, whose name was James” (Ant. Xx.9.1). Eusebius, the early church historian, records the martyrdom of “James, the brother of the Lord” in his Ecclesiastical History (2.23). He cites the earlier accounts by Hegesippus, Clement of Alexandria, and Josephus. This would have been shortly after the death of Festus, procurator of Judea, in A.D. 61.

The photo below shows two of the monumental tombs in the Kidron Valley between the Old City of Jerusalem and the Mount of Olives, south of the so-called Tomb of Absalom (see here). Modern Jewish tombs are visible on the slopes of the Mount of Olives above the older monuments.

The tomb on the right is known as the Tomb of Zachariah. The tomb on the left, with a porch and two Doric columns is the Tomb of Beni Hezir from the latter half of the second century B.C. (the Maccabean Period). It is incorrectly identified as the Tomb of James.

Bene Hezir (traditional James) Tomb and Tomb of Zachariah. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Bene Hezir (traditional James) Tomb and Tomb of Zachariah. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

We have pointed out before that many structures have been incorrectly identified with specific biblical characters over the centuries. The tomb identified with James belonged to a priestly family named Hezir. Perhaps this Hezir was a descendant of a priest mentioned in 1 Chronicles 24:15. The name appears again in Nehemiah 10:20. The connection with James was a mistaken idea.