Daily Archives: September 3, 2009

Impressive Canaanite fortification in “City of David”

According to a press release from the Israel Antiquities Authority, “An Enormous 3,700 Year Old Fortification was Exposed in the City of David.”

The fortification rises to a height of c. 8 meters [about 26+ feet], and it seems that the Canaanites used it to defend the path that led to the spring.

The excavations are being conducted by the Israel Antiquities Authority in the “Walls Around Jerusalem National Park and are underwritten by the ‘Ir David Foundation.

A huge fortification more than 3,700 years old, which is ascribed to the Canaanites (Middle Bronze Age 2 [2000-1500 BC]), was uncovered in archaeological excavations the Israel Antiquities Authority is currently conducting in the “Walls Around Jerusalem National Park” in the City of David, with funding provided by the ‘Ir David Foundation.

According to the director of the excavation, Professor Ronny Reich of the University of Haifa, together with Eli Shukron on behalf of the Israel Antiquities Authority, “This is the most massive wall that has ever been uncovered in the City of David, and it rises to a height of 8 meters. We are dealing with a gigantic fortification, from the standpoint of the structure’s dimensions, the thickness of its walls and the size of the stones that were incorporated in its construction. The walls appear to be a protected, well-fortified passage that descends to the spring tower from some sort of fortress that stood at the top of the hill. The construction of a protected passage such as this is a plausible solution that explains the innate contradiction of the situation whereby the spring – which is a source of life from the standpoint of the fortress’ inhabitants in time of emergency – is located in the weakest and most vulnerable place in the area. The construction of a protected passage, even though it involves tremendous effort, is a solution for which there are several parallels in antiquity, albeit from periods that are later than the remains described here. A small section of the fortification was discovered in 1909, and it has been ascertained in the present excavations that it was part of an enormous wall. This is the first time that such massive construction that predates the Herodian period has been discovered in Jerusalem.”

During this period Jerusalem and the fields around it were an independent political entity with self-rule, similar to its neighbors Shechem to the north and Jericho to the east. Massive walls resembling the one that was just exposed in Jerusalem are known from Canaanite Hebron (Tel Rumeida), Shechem (Tell Balata) and Gezer.

Middle Bronze II Fortification. Photo: Vladimir Naiahin, IAA.

Middle Bronze II Fortification. Photo: Vladimir Naiahin, IAA.

Professor Reich comments on the fortification:

“Even though it would seem we are dealing with impressive fortifications, the walls were after all primarily used to defend against marauding desert nomads who wanted to rob the city. These are the earliest fortifications in the region and they bear witness to the fact that from this point on the settlement had became an urban entity with a ruler who had the capability and resources to build such a structure. A small settlement would have been unsuccessful in organizing such construction”.

The known section of the fortification is 24 meters long; however, it is thought the fortification is much longer because it continues west beyond the part that was exposed, at the top of the hillside. Professor Reich adds, “The new discovery shows that the picture regarding Jerusalem’s eastern defenses and the ancient water system in the Middle Bronze Age 2 is still far from clear. Despite the fact that so many have excavated on this hill, there is a very good chance that extremely large and well-preserved architectural elements are still hidden in it and waiting to be uncovered”.

Middle Bronze II Fortification. Photo: Vladimir Naiahin, IAA.

Middle Bronze II Fortification. Photo: Vladimir Naiahin, IAA.

The public will be able to visit the fortification for the first time today, September 3. I would like to be there.

What does this mean for the Bible student? The Middle Bronze II period is the period of the Biblical Patriarchs. It was possibly during that period when Melchizedek, king of Salem and priest of God Most High, went out to bless Abraham after his return from rescuing Lot (Genesis 14:18). We have no way to know if this fortification was in existence at that time.

Assuming this fortification was still in use at the time when David captured the stronghold of Zion from the Jebusites, it helps explain the arrogance of the local residents (2 Samuel 5:6-7).

Take a look at the City of David website here.

HT: Joseph I. Lauer